Nebula

Nebula are clouds of interstellar gas that can either emit or reflect light. Usually these objects are imaged in narrow-band, but RGB is included for star colours.


B33 (Horsehead Nebula)

B33 (Horsehead Nebula).
Figure 1: B33 (Horsehead Nebula).
On 17 February 2019, after having received a new GM3000 mount, I took a 1200s Ha sub of the horsehead nebula, using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera, to see if the mount was properly functioning. This sub was that nice that I decided to fill in the colour with some additional data (see figure 1). A total of 1 hours and 30 minutes of data was collected:
L : 10 x 120s
R : 10 x 120s
G : 10 x 120s
B : 10 x 120s
Ha :
:
:
10 x 120s
1 x 600s
1 x 1200s
Oiii: 10 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


IC410

The Tadpoles Nebula is imaged on 1-2 March 2021.
Figure 2: The Tadpoles Nebula is imaged on 1-2 March 2021.
On 1 and 2 March 2021 I pointed the scope to IC410, better known as the Tadpoles Nebula, a reflection nebula in the constellation of Auriga at a distance of 12,000 lightyears from earth.
Imaged with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool, unguided on the GM3000HPS mount. In total 108 narrow-band subs: 36 x 300s for H-alpha, O-iii and S-ii, so a total of 540 minutes (9 hours) data.
H-alpha: 36 x 300s
O-iii: 36 x 300s
S-ii: 36 x 300s
Processing in APP, PSP, Topaz Denoise and again PSP.
Click here for the full image.


IC5070 (Pelican Nebula)

IC5070 (the Pelican Nebula) as imaged on 20-23 August 2019.
Figure 3: IC5070 (the Pelican Nebula) as imaged on 20-23 August 2019.
On 20, 21, 22 and 23 August 2019 I spent some 17 hours of imaging on the narrowband object IC5070, better known as the The Pelican Nebula (see figure 3), in the constellation of Cygnus. A total of 311 subs of varying length in R, G, B, Ha, O-iii and S-ii was collected:
R : 30 x 120s
G : 30 x 120s
B : 30 x 120s
Ha : 40 x 120s
20 x 300s
O-iii: 40 x 120s
20 x 300s
23 x 600s
S-ii: 40 x 120s
38 x 300s
Altogether this is 17 hours and 20 minutes of data. The three brightest stars are (in descending order of brightness) 57 Cyg, 56 Cyg, and V1794 Cyg.
Processing was done in APP using a Hubble-palette (Ha: 100% green, O-iii: 100% blue, S-ii: 100% red) with the L-sliders on respectively 80, 65 and 30%. A slight post-processing was done in PSP (adding contrast, changing the hue slightly to get more reddish tints in it).
Click here for the full image.


Cave Nebula and vdB 155.

The Cave Nebula as imaged in August/September 2020.
Figure 4: The Cave Nebula as imaged in August/September 2020.
On 8 and 18 August and 2 September 2020 I spent just under 11 hours of imaging on the narrowband object Sharpless 155, better known as The Cave Nebula (see figure 4), in the constellation of Cepheus. A total of 227 subs of varying length in L, R, G, B, Ha, O-iii and S-ii was collected:
L : 41 x 60s
R : 36 x 120s
G : 36 x 120s
B : 36 x 120s
Ha : 34 x 300s
O-iii: 22 x 300s
S-ii: 22 x 300s

Click here for the full image, which can also be found in World Wide Telescope.


The Cave nebula in HSO.
Figure 5: The Cave nebula in HSO.
Altogether this is 10 hours and 47 minutes of data. The central bright star is HD 216945, the bright star in the blue reflection nebula vdB 155 is HD 216629.
Processing of figure 4 was done in APP using a Hubble-palette with the L-sliders for the narrowband layers on 50%, that of the luminance layer on 100%. Post-processing was done in PSP.

In addition the data was also processed using HSO-palette, the full image of which can be found here.


Cygnus Wall

Cygnus Wall as imaged on 24-26 August 2019
Figure 6: Cygnus Wall as imaged on 24-26 August 2019
Another nice object in the constellation of Cygnus is the Cygnus Wall. Huge clouds of hydrogen form a massive wall against a backdrop of oxygen. At the right dark clouds in which star formation takes place obscure distant objects. The Wall was imaged on three consecutive nights in August (24th - 26th). A total of 13 hours and 25 minutes of data was collected:
R : 30 x 120s
G : 30 x 120s
B : 30 x 120s
Ha : 21 x 300s
Oiii: 31 x 600s
Sii: 42 x 300s
Click here for the full image.


IC1396 (Elephant Trunk Nebula)

The elephant trunk nebula as imaged in March and April 2021.
Figure 7: The elephant trunk nebula as imaged in March and April 2021.
At a distance of 2400 light years in the constellation of Cepheus a concentration of interstellar gas and dust called the Elephant Trunk nebula can be found.
On 28 February and 2, 3, 6 and 24 March and 21 and 23 April 2021 this object was imaged in LRGB, H-alpha, O-iii and S-ii for 23 hours:
L: 240 x 60s
R: 40 x 120s
G: 40 x 120s
B: 40 x 120s
H-alpha: 52 x 300s
O-iii: 64 x 300s
S-ii: 64 x 300s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz Denoise AI.
Click here for the full image.


Jones-Emberson-1

A crop of Jones-Emberson-1 as images in April 2020.
Figure 8: A crop of Jones-Emberson-1 as images in April 2020.
During 9 nights in April 2020 I imaged Jones-Emberson-1, better known as the headphones nebula. The nebula is also known under its catalogue name PK 164+31.1. This planetary nebula in the constellation of Lynx is located at a distance of 1600 light-year from earth. The nebula has a magnitude of 14, while the central blue-white dwarf.
The following data was collected to produce adjacent image:
L : 165 x 120s
R : 165 x 120s
G : 165 x 120s
B : 165 x 120s
Ha : 145 x 300s
Oiii: 145 x 300s
In total this equals 46 hours and 20 minutes.
Click here for the full image.


M27 (Dumbbell Nebula)

M27 (Dumbbell Nebula) and 14 Vul captured with the Esprit 150ED and ZWO ASI1600MM Cool Pro.
Figure 9: M27 (Dumbbell Nebula) and 14 Vul captured with the Esprit 150ED and ZWO ASI1600MM Cool Pro.
The first attempt to shoot a deep sky object in full colour was on 4 November 2018 with M27, better known as the Dumbbell Nebula, using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera (see figure 9). On a single night 2 hours and 20 minutes of data was collected:
L : 10 x 120s
R : 10 x 120s
G : 10 x 120s
B : 10 x 120s
Ha : 10 x 120s
Oiii: 10 x 120s
Sii: 10 x 120s
The image is the result of RGB, Ha, O-III and S-II, luminance was not used. In the processing all components were given a weight factor 1. Finally the image was cropped to 66% and given additional 35% colour saturation and 15% contrast. The flats were not perfect as can be seen when opening the original image.
The brightest star (left side of the image) is 14 Vulpeculae in the constellation of Vulpecula.
Click here for the full image.


M42 (Orion Nebula)

M42 (Orion nebula).
Figure 10: M42 (Orion nebula).
On 27 February 2019 I took some images of Messier 42, better known as the Orion Nebula (see figure 10), using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 1 hour and 50 minutes of data was collected:
L : 60 x 20s
R : 60 x 30s
G : 60 x 30s
B : 60 x 30s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M57 (ringnebula)

M57 (ringnebula) captured with the Esprit and ZWO ASI1600MM.
Figure 11: M57 (ringnebula) captured with the Esprit and ZWO ASI1600MM.
On 13 and 14 December 2018 data was collected from M57, better known as the ring nebula (see figure 11), using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. With 10 subs of 120 seconds per colour data was acquired in L, R, G, B, H-Alpha and O-III. Apart from luminance, which was added at 70% level all channels were combined at 100%. Once combined 60% saturation and 15% contrast were added, while green was slightly reduced (-5%). Finally the image was cropped to 45%. In contrast to M27 the flats were now much better.
Click here for the full image.


M97 (Owl Nebula)

The Owl nebula as imaged in March/April 2021.
Figure 12: The Owl nebula as imaged in March/April 2021.
During three nights in March and April 2021 the Owl nebula was imaged. M106 can be found in the constellation Ursa Major. The distance to this planetary nebula is approximately 2030 light years. It was discovered in 1781 by astronomer and surveyor Pierre Méchain, well known as the surveyor who, together with colleague Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre measured the Paris meridian between Dunkirk and Barcelona in order to define the length of the metre.
L: 150 x 60s
R: 50 x 120s
G: 50 x 120s
B: 50 x 120s
L: 30 x 300s
L: 30 x 300s
Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 2174

NGC 2174 as imaged in February 2021.
Figure 13: NGC 2174 as imaged in February 2021.
On 26 and 27 February 2021 I took some images of NGC 2174, better known as the Monkey Head Nebula (see figure 11), an emission nebula above the left arm of Orion at a distance of approximately 6400 lightyears from Earth.
The subs were taken using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 9 hours of data was collected:
H-alpha: 36 x 300s
O-iii: 36 x 300s
S-ii: 36 x 300s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz Denoise AI.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 2264

NGC 2264 as imaged on 11-13 February 2021.
Figure 14: NGC 2264 as imaged on 11-13 February 2021.
The night from 11 to 12 February 2021 was the first of that year, although the night before we had a clear spell of a few hours, just enough to collect a single hour of luminance data on this object. So the following night another hour luminance, 28 x 120s RGB and 20 x 300s H-Alpha was collected, a total of 6 hours and 28 minutes. A week later, on 18 February, another 25 minutes luminance, 40 minutes H-alpha and 140 minutes O-iii was added:
L: 145 x 60s
R: 28 x 120s
G: 28 x 120s
B: 28 x 120s
H-alpha: 28 x 300s
O-iii: 28 x 300s
Processing was done in APP.
NGC 2264 consists of multiple objects: the Cone Nebula, Stellar Snowflake Cluster, Christmas Tree Cluster and the Fox Fur Nebula. The group has a distance of 2600 light-years from earth.
A full version can be found here.


NGC 6820 and NGC 6823

NGC 6823 as in 2020. NGC 6820 is at the upper left, a sixth from the top, quarter from the left.
Figure 15: NGC 6823 as in 2020. NGC 6820 is at the upper left, a sixth from the top, quarter from the left.
During five nights in September 2020 I have been imaging three objects from the New General Catalogue: NGC 660 and the two shown here, NGC 6820 and NGC 6823. The former is the small reflection nebula at the upper left in the open cluster NGC 6823 that fills the image here. They are located in Vulpecula at a distance of 6.000 light-years from Earth. It was due to the low altitude of NGC 660 at the start of the night and the low altitude of NGC 6820/NGC 6823 at the end that I decided to combine them.
A total of 134 subs of 300s each in Ha, O-iii and S-ii was collected, making the total integration time 11 hours and 10 minutes.
Ha : 30 x 300s
O-iii: 52 x 300s
S-ii: 52 x 300s
Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 6888 (Crescent Nebula)

The Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888).
Figure 16: The Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888).
After having spent two nights on NGC 7380 another two clear nights on 14 and 15 May 2019 allowed collecting data, this time from NGC6888, better known as the Crescent Nebula (see figure 16). A total of 150 subs of 120s each in Ha, O-iii and S-ii was collected.
Ha : 50 x 120s
O-iii: 50 x 120s
S-ii: 50 x 120s
Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 7129

NGC 7129 as imaged in August-September 2019.
Figure 17: NGC 7129 as imaged in August-September 2019.
After having finished the subs for Cygnus Wall I started taking subs for NGC7129, a reflection nebula in Cepheus constellation at a distance of about 3300 light-years. The first were taken during the early hours of 27 August 2019, followed by another session on 29/30 August. Then weather took a turn for the worst and it was not until 5 September that the skies cleared a bit. That clearance was just enough to gather just of two and a half hours of red and green, but the much needed additional blue had to wait until the skies clear again. That took a while, but on 30 October the skies cleared again. Another session was done on the next clear occasion, which was on 4 December. Then it became clouded until March 2020. On 21, 24, 26, 27 and 31 March a significant amount of luminance was added to finalise the image.
A total of 44 hours, 12 minutes and 20 seconds integration time was spent on this reflection nebula:
L: 1060 x 60s
L: 40 x 120s
R: 170 x 120s
G: 194 x 120s
B: 183 x 120s
H-alpha: 84 x 300s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20°C. Processing in APP 1.078, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 7380 (The Wizard Nebula)

NGC7380 (The Wizard Nebula)
Figure 18: NGC7380 (The Wizard Nebula)
On the edge of winter 2018-2019 imaging period we had two nice clear nights on 12 and 13 May 2019 with some 3 hours of imaging period per night (based on minimum solar altitude of -16°). I decided to use that for a narrowband object, NGC7380, better known as the The Wizard Nebula (see figure 18). A total of 150 subs of 120s each in Ha, O-iii and S-ii was collected.
Ha : 50 x 120s
O-iii: 50 x 120s
S-ii: 50 x 120s
Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 7635 (Bubble Nebula)

The Bubble Nebula as imaged in May 2020 using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
Figure 19: The Bubble Nebula as imaged in May 2020 using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
In May 2020, at the end of the 2019-2020 imaging season, I photographed the Bubble Nebula. It all started with a test with new ZWO 36mm unmounted H-alpha and S-ii filters. I had replaced the old one as those produced strong halos around bright objects.
The Bubble Nebula is located in Cassiopeia at a distance of 7100 light years. From the image resolution of 0.72"/px and the dimensions of the bubble its diameter can be calculated as 6.8 light years.
In total the image contains just over 7 hours of integration time:
Lum : 40 x 60s
R : 14 x 120s
G : 14 x 120s
B : 14 x 120s
Ha : 20 x 300s
Oiii: 20 x 300s
Sii: 20 x 300s
Click here for the full image.


Soul Nebula

The Soul Nebula as imaged on 6-7 November 2020.
Figure 20: The Soul Nebula as imaged on 6-7 November 2020.
On 6 and 7 November 2020 I imaged a section of the Soul Nebula in LRGB and NB using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool. This section is the higher right ascension part (about two thirds) of the nebula around HIP 13924, the rest of the nebula is left of this image.
In total the image contains 18 hours and 19 minutes of integration time:
L : 64 x 60s
R : 30 x 120s
G : 30 x 120s
B : 30 x 120s
Ha : 57 x 300s
Oiii: 57 x 300s
Sii: 57 x 300s
Click here for the full image.


Tulip Nebula

The Tulip Nebula as imaged with the Esprit and ZWO ASI1600 Cool Pro combination.
Figure 21: The Tulip Nebula as imaged with the Esprit and ZWO ASI1600 Cool Pro combination.
I started imaging the Tulip Nebula on 14 September 2019 in narrow band only. On 20 September the skies cleared again and two other nights of narrow band followed. At that moment I had collected 11 ours of narrow band, to which I wanted to add some RGB for the star colours. For this last bit I had to be patient: it was not until 30 October before the skies cleared again, but that night I used for NCG7129. The following night the job on the Tulip Nebula could finally be finished.
In total the image contains nearly 16 hours of integration time:
R : 40 x 120s
G : 40 x 120s
B : 40 x 120s
Ha : 26 x 300s
Oiii: 51 x 300s
Sii: 66 x 300s
Click here for the full image.


If you have any questions and/or remarks please let me know.


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