Galaxies

Galaxies are clusters of stars that rotate in a gravitational field that is caused by themselves of by a central super massive black hole. Usually they are imaged in RGB, although sometimes narrowband is added to show traces of gas between them.


HCG92 (Stephan's Quintet)

Stephan's Quintet and NGC7331 as imaged in September 2020.
Figure 1: Stephan's Quintet and NGC7331 as imaged in September 2020.
On 13, 15 and 18 September 2020 I imaged Stephan's Quintet (Hickson Compact Group 92, or HCG92) and NGC7331, also known as Caldwell 30. Stephan's quintet (lower right on the image) is a group of five galaxies at 210-340 million light-years with a seemingly sixth companion, recognizable by its blue colour, at 'only' 39 million light-years.
At the upper left NCG7331, a spiral galaxy at about 40 light-years, can be seen with next to it another four galaxies. Looking at the rest of this area dozens of other galaxies can be found.
A total of 13 hours and 10 minutes of data was collected:
L : 280 x 60s
R : 85 x 120s
G : 85 x 120s
B : 85 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.
Click here for the annotated image (annotation with ASTAP).


M13 (Hercules globular cluster)

The first deep-sky attempt: Hercules globular cluster M13 with in the lower left corner NGC6207.
Figure 2: The first deep-sky attempt: Hercules globular cluster M13 with in the lower left corner NGC6207.
On 2 November 2018, with the assistance of Rob Musquetier and Caspar Tielemans, the first deep-sky object was imaged from InFINNity Deck. Using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED and a ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera pictures with 60 and 120 seconds were taken of M13 (see figure 2), better known as Hercules globular cluster. In the same frame galaxy NGC6207 is visible as are bright stars HIP 81848 and HIP 81673. The images were taken at around 9pm UTC with the cluster at approximately 15 degrees altitude, which is quite low for proper imaging, but setting up equipment and sequences and waiting for cloud cover to open made M13 drop lower than anticipated. Nevertheless I think we done rather well for a first attempt under challenging conditions.
Click here for the full image.


M13 in colour.
Figure 3: M13 in colour.
On 2 and 4 June 2019 I revisited M13, now to add some colour to it. I did not use my previous luminance as those were made with quite a different orientation of the camera. The images were taken using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. The previous version was the first deep-sky object I imaged, this time it is the first time that I used masks on the filters in the ZWO EFW filter wheel. A total of 2 hours of data was collected:
R : 10 x 60s
20 x 120s
G : 10 x 60s
10 x 120s
B : 10 x 60s
10 x 120s
Ha : 10 x 60s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M15

M15 in Pegasus as imaged on 8 August 2019.
Figure 4: M15 in Pegasus as imaged on 8 August 2019.
On 8 August 2019 I imaged M15 in the constellation Pegasus, another globular cluster from the Messier list. The images were taken using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. The brightest stars accompanying the cluster are HIP106157 (white), HIP106075 (orange, upper left) and HIP106243 (blue). A total of 1 hour of data was collected:
R :10 x 120s
G :10 x 120s
B :10 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M29

M29 as imaged on 7 and 8 September 2021.
Figure 5: M29 as imaged on 7 and 8 September 2021.
On 7 and 8 September 2021 I spent some time on Messier 29, also known as NGC 6913 (see figure 6), using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 11 hours and 52 minutes of data was collected:
L : 200 x 30s
R : 112 x 120s
G : 112 x 120s
B : 112 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M51 (Whirlpool Galaxy)

M51 (The Whirlpool Galaxy).
Figure 6: M51 (The Whirlpool Galaxy).
On 24, 29 and 30 March 2019 I spent some time on Messier 51, better known as the Whirlpool Galaxy (see figure 6), using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 5 hours and 20 minutes of data was collected:
L : 30 x 120s
R : 30 x 120s
G : 20 x 120s
B : 20 x 120s
Ha : 30 x 120s
Oiii: 30 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M81 and M82 (Bode's and Cigar Galaxy)

M81 (Bode's Galaxy) and M82 (Sigar Galaxy).
Figure 7: M81 (Bode's Galaxy) and M82 (Sigar Galaxy).
On 24, 25 and 26 February 2019 the combination of Messier 81 and Messier 82 were imaged with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera (see figure 7). They are better known as respectively Bode's Galaxy and the Cigar Galaxy. A total of 8 hours and 10 minutes of data was collected:
L : 40 x 120s
R : 40 x 120s
G : 40 x 120s
B : 40 x 120s
Ha : 70 x 120s
Oiii: 55 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M101 (Pinwheel Galaxy)

M101 (Pinwheel Galaxy)
Figure 8: M101 (Pinwheel Galaxy)
On 7, 8, 15, 20, 21 and 22 April 2019 Messier 101, better known as the Pinwheel Galaxy was imaged, using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera (see figure 8). A total of 17 hours and 20 minutes of data was collected:
L : 20 x 120s
R : 40 x 120s
G : 40 x 120s
B : 40 x 120s
Ha : 140 x 120s
Oiii: 140 x 120s
Sii: 100 x 120s
In the end the lum data was disgarded in the processing, leaving still some 16 hours and 40 minutes of data to integrate, which was done in APP. Post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M106

M106 as imaged in April 2021.
Figure 9: M106 as imaged in April 2021.
During the night of 16 to 17 April 2021 I have been imaging a bunch of galaxies, of which M106 was the largest one (apparently that is). M106 can be found in the constellation Canes Venatici. This galaxy is shown here at the upper left and has a distance from Earth of 23 Mly, the other galaxies are NGC4217 (82 Mly), NGC4226 (391 Mly), NGC4231 (0.34 Gly), NGC4232 (0.33 Gly), NGC4248 (24 Mly).
L: 120 x 60s
R: 34 x 120s
G: 34 x 120s
B: 34 x 120s
Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz Denoise AI.
Click here for the full image.


NGC660

NGC660 as imaged in September 2020.
Figure 10: NGC660 as imaged in September 2020.
During five nights in September 2020 I have been imaging three objects from the New General Catalogue: NGC6820 and NGC6823, and the one shown here, NGC660. This galaxy, shown here at the lower left, is an unique object in the known universe. It is a polar-ring galaxy that most likly is the result of two colliding galaxies. It is located at approximately 45 million light years in the constellation of Pisces. In the background dozens of other galaxies can be seen, the largest of which is IC148.
It was due to the low altitude of NGC660 at the start of the night and the low altitude of NGC6820/NGC6823 at the end that I decided to combine them.
A total of 669 subs were collected in LRGB, making the total integration time 16 hours and 15 minutes.
L: 363 x 60s
R: 102 x 120s
G: 102 x 120s
B: 102 x 120s
Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.
Click here for the annotated version (annotated with ASTAP).


NGC 891 (Silver Sliver Galaxy)

NGC 891 as imaged on 4 and 5 September 2021.
Figure 11: NGC 891 as imaged on 4 and 5 September 2021.
The first two clear nights of the 2021-2022 imaging season were used to obtain data from NGC891, also known as Caldwell 23, the Silver Sliver Galaxy, and the Outer Limits Galaxy. NGC891 is part of the NGC 1023 group in the Local Supercluster in the constellation of Andromeda at a distance of 30 mly from Earth. In diameter NGC891 measures 60.000 lightyears.
A total of 12 hours and 44 minutes was spent on this galaxy:
L:200 x 60s
R:94 x 120s
G:94 x 120s
B:94 x 120s
Captured using NINA (first object captured with this software) with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20░C. Processing in APP 1.078, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image. An annotated version of the image shows the names of the other galaxies.


NGC3628 (Hamburger Galaxy)

The Hamburger Galaxy as imaged in March/April 2020.
Figure 12: The Hamburger Galaxy as imaged in March/April 2020.
While waiting for NGC7129 to get high enough in the sky in March 2020, I decided to fill the waiting time with taking subs from NGC3628, better known as the Hamburger Galaxy. NGC3628 is part of the Leo triplet in the constellation of Leo at a distance of 35 mly from Earth.
A total of 8 hours was spent on this galaxy:
L:60 x 120s
R:60 x 120s
G:60 x 120s
B:60 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20░C. Processing in APP 1.078, post-processing in PSP.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 4656 Hockey-stick Galaxy - NGC 4631 Whale Galaxy

The Hockey-stick (NGC 4656) and Whale (NGC 4631) Galaxy.
Figure 13: The Hockey-stick (NGC 4656) and Whale (NGC 4631) Galaxy.
While waiting for IC1396 to get high enough in the sky in February and March 2021, I decided to fill the waiting time with taking subs from NGC 4656, better known as the Hockey-stick Galaxy, and NGC 4631, better known as the Whale Galaxy. These two galaxies can be found between Canes Venatici and Coma Berenices.
A total of 3.5 hours was spent on this galaxy:
L:60 x 60s
R:25 x 120s
G:25 x 120s
B:25 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20░C. Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC5466

NGC 5466 as imaged on 11-13 February 2021.
Figure 14: NGC 5466 as imaged on 11-13 February 2021.
After having imaged NGC2264 on 12 February 2021, some time was left for a second object. Being a moon-less night, it was perfect weather for a LRGB-object, which became NGC5466, also known as the Snow-Globe Cluster or Ghost Globular Cluster due to its lack of stars towards the centre of it. Four hours of data was collected in LRGB: 60s subs for luminance, 120s subs for the rest.
Click here for the full image.


If you have any questions and/or remarks please let me know.


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