Galaxies

Galaxies are clusters of stars that rotate in a gravitational field that is caused by themselves of by a central super massive black hole. Usually they are imaged in RGB, although sometimes narrowband is added to show traces of gas between them.


HCG92 (Stephan's Quintet)

Stephan's Quintet and NGC7331 as imaged in September 2020.
Figure 1: Stephan's Quintet and NGC7331 as imaged in September 2020.
On 13, 15 and 18 September 2020 I imaged Stephan's Quintet (Hickson Compact Group 92, or HCG92) and NGC7331, also known as Caldwell 30. Stephan's quintet (lower right on the image) is a group of five galaxies at 210-340 million light-years with a seemingly sixth companion, recognizable by its blue colour, at 'only' 39 million light-years.
At the upper left NCG7331, a spiral galaxy at about 40 light-years, can be seen with next to it another four galaxies. Looking at the rest of this area dozens of other galaxies can be found.
A total of 13 hours and 10 minutes of data was collected:
L : 280 x 60s
R : 85 x 120s
G : 85 x 120s
B : 85 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.
Click here for the annotated image (annotation with ASTAP).


M13 (Hercules globular cluster)

The first deep-sky attempt: Hercules globular cluster M13 with in the lower left corner NGC6207.
Figure 2: The first deep-sky attempt: Hercules globular cluster M13 with in the lower left corner NGC6207.
On 2 November 2018, with the assistance of Rob Musquetier and Caspar Tielemans, the first deep-sky object was imaged from InFINNity Deck. Using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED and a ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera pictures with 60 and 120 seconds were taken of M13 (see figure 2), better known as Hercules globular cluster. In the same frame galaxy NGC6207 is visible as are bright stars HIP 81848 and HIP 81673. The images were taken at around 9pm UTC with the cluster at approximately 15 degrees altitude, which is quite low for proper imaging, but setting up equipment and sequences and waiting for cloud cover to open made M13 drop lower than anticipated. Nevertheless I think we done rather well for a first attempt under challenging conditions.
Click here for the full image.


M13 in colour.
Figure 3: M13 in colour.
On 2 and 4 June 2019 I revisited M13, now to add some colour to it. I did not use my previous luminance as those were made with quite a different orientation of the camera. The images were taken using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. The previous version was the first deep-sky object I imaged, this time it is the first time that I used masks on the filters in the ZWO EFW filter wheel. A total of 2 hours of data was collected:
R : 10 x 60s
20 x 120s
G : 10 x 60s
10 x 120s
B : 10 x 60s
10 x 120s
Ha : 10 x 60s
Processing done in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril and PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M13 as imaged on 23 August 2021 using the SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED.
Figure 4: M13 as imaged on 23 August 2021 using the SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED.
On 23 August 2021 I revisited M13 while testing the newly acquired SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED. I made a quick recording in LRGB of 40 minutes:
L : 20 x 30s
R : 10 x 60s
G : 10 x 60s
B : 10 x 60s
Processing done in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril and PSP.
Click here for the full image.
The upper-left and lower-right corners of the image show elongated stars, caused by some optical defect in the telescope (astigmatism?). The scope was returned and replaced by a new one which does not show this effect.


M15

M15 in Pegasus as imaged on 8 August 2019.
Figure 5: M15 in Pegasus as imaged on 8 August 2019.
On 8 August 2019 I imaged M15 in the constellation Pegasus, another globular cluster from the Messier list. The images were taken using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. The brightest stars accompanying the cluster are HIP106157 (white), HIP106075 (orange, upper left) and HIP106243 (blue). A total of 1 hour of data was collected:
R :10 x 120s
G :10 x 120s
B :10 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril and PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M29

M29 as imaged on 7 and 8 September 2021.
Figure 6: M29 as imaged on 7 and 8 September 2021.
On 7 and 8 September 2021 I spent some time on Messier 29, also known as NGC 6913 (see figure 10), using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 11 hours and 52 minutes of data was collected:
L : 200 x 30s
R : 112 x 120s
G : 112 x 120s
B : 112 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


M31 (Andromeda Galaxy)

M31 as imaged on 2 September 2021 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED
Figure 7: M31 as imaged on 2 September 2021 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED
In 2021 I added a SkyWatcher Esprit ED80 to my set-up to be able to make wide-field images. The first proper test was done on M31, the Andromeda Galaxy. It was just a short imaging session to see how the scope performed. Imaging was done with the ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 1 hour and 20 minutes of data was collected:
L : 40 x 30s
R : 20 x 60s
G : 20 x 60s
B : 20 x 60s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
Clearly the image needs much more data, but this first attempt is good enough to see the quality of the scope.
Click here for the full image.


M31 two-panel mosaic

M31 in two panels with the Esprit 80ED, 9-10 September 2023.
Figure 8: M31 in two panels with the Esprit 80ED, 9-10 September 2023.
In 2023 I decided to have another go at M31, the Andromeda Galaxy. As the previous time showed that it did not properly fit the sensor, I decided to shoot it in a two-panel mosaic. Imaging was done with the SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED, ZWO EFW with ZWO LRGB filters and a ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 6 hours of data was collected (3 hours per panel):
L : 360 x 30s
R : 90 x 60s
G : 90 x 60s
B : 90 x 60s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in Siril, Topaz and PSP.
Click here for the full image.


M37

M37 as imaged on 13 February 2023 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
Figure 9: M37 as imaged on 13 February 2023 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
The night of 13 February 2023 I had a visit from the namesake of our observatory, together with his sister and a friend. Using the C11 we spent more than an hour looking at various objects in the sky like Venus, Jupiter, Mars, C/2022 E3 (ZTF), M94, M44, M35, M31, M42 and this one, M37. Being an open cluster with may bright stars it is a very nice object at the eyepiece, so when the observing session ended at about nine o'clock, I set the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED to work and took the following series of subs of M37:
L : 120 x 60s
R : 25 x 120s
G : 25 x 120s
B : 25 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in PSP.
M37 is an open cluster in the constellation Auriga, not far from where I last photographed comet C/2022 E3 (ZTF). The cluster has been identified before 1654 by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Hodierna, but was eventually catalogued by Charles Messier in September 1764, and as a result the cluster is now called M37.
The distance to Earth is about 4500 light years, which means that the diameter is about 20-25 light years. There are 500 identified stars in the cluster, 150 of which are brighter than magnitude 12.5. The bright orange star at the top left is HIP27661.
Click here for the full image.


M51 (Whirlpool Galaxy)

M51 (The Whirlpool Galaxy).
Figure 10: M51 (The Whirlpool Galaxy).
On 24, 29 and 30 March 2019 I spent some time on Messier 51, better known as the Whirlpool Galaxy (see figure 10), using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera. A total of 5 hours and 20 minutes of data was collected:
L : 30 x 120s
R : 30 x 120s
G : 20 x 120s
B : 20 x 120s
Ha : 30 x 120s
Oiii: 30 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


M63

M63 as imaged on 23 april 2022
Figure 11: M63 as imaged on 23 april 2022
On 23 April 2022 Messier 63 was on my list. Imaging was done with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera (see figure 11). Sadly enough weather deteriorated and this project never got further than 5 hours of data:
L : 67 x 60s
R : 40 x 120s
G : 40 x 120s
B : 40 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


M81 and M82 (Bode's and Cigar Galaxy)

M81 (Bode's Galaxy) and M82 (Sigar Galaxy).
Figure 12: M81 (Bode's Galaxy) and M82 (Sigar Galaxy).
On 24, 25 and 26 February 2019 the combination of Messier 81 and Messier 82 were imaged with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera (see figure 12). They are better known as respectively Bode's Galaxy and the Cigar Galaxy. A total of 8 hours and 10 minutes of data was collected:
L : 40 x 120s
R : 40 x 120s
G : 40 x 120s
B : 40 x 120s
Ha : 70 x 120s
Oiii: 55 x 120s
Processing done in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 using Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


M94

M94 as imaged on 9 March 2022.
Figure 13: M94 as imaged on 9 March 2022.
On 8 and 9 March 2022 M94 was imaged using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED. This galaxy has a distance of 16 million light-years from Earth in direction of the constellation Canes Venatici.
A total of 16 hours was spent on this galaxy:
L:300 x 60s
R:110 x 120s
G:110 x 120s
B:110 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


M101 (Pinwheel Galaxy)

M101 (Pinwheel Galaxy)
Figure 14: M101 (Pinwheel Galaxy)
On 7, 8, 15, 20, 21 and 22 April 2019 Messier 101, better known as the Pinwheel Galaxy was imaged, using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED APO and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera (see figure 14). A total of 17 hours and 20 minutes of data was collected:
L : 20 x 120s
R : 40 x 120s
G : 40 x 120s
B : 40 x 120s
Ha : 140 x 120s
Oiii: 140 x 120s
Sii: 100 x 120s
In the end the lum data was disgarded in the processing, leaving still some 16 hours and 40 minutes of data to integrate, which was done in APP. Post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


Supernova SN 2023ixf in M101 as imaged on 27 May 2023.
Figure 15: Supernova SN 2023ixf in M101 as imaged on 27 May 2023.
On Friday 19 May 2023 supernova SN 2023ixf was detected in M101 by Koichi Itagaki, a Japanese amateur astronomer with a count of only 105 supernova dicoveries.
On 27 May 2023 I decided to give M101 a try despite partial cloud-cover and short nights due to the northerly location of InFINNity Deck.
A total of 1 hour and 50 minutes of data was collected with the same set-up as in 2019, but now only in LRGB:
L : 50 x 60s
R : 10 x 120s
G : 10 x 120s
B : 10 x 120s
Click here for the full image.


M106

M106 as imaged in April 2021.
Figure 16: M106 as imaged in April 2021.
During the night of 16 to 17 April 2021 I have been imaging a bunch of galaxies, of which M106 was the largest one (apparently that is). M106 can be found in the constellation Canes Venatici. This galaxy is shown here at the upper left and has a distance from Earth of 23 Mly, the other galaxies are NGC4217 (82 Mly), NGC4226 (391 Mly), NGC4231 (0.34 Gly), NGC4232 (0.33 Gly), NGC4248 (24 Mly).
L: 120 x 60s
R: 34 x 120s
G: 34 x 120s
B: 34 x 120s
Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz Denoise AI.
Click here for the full image.


NGC660

NGC660 as imaged in September 2020.
Figure 17: NGC660 as imaged in September 2020.
During five nights in September 2020 I have been imaging three objects from the New General Catalogue: NGC6820 and NGC6823, and the one shown here, NGC660. This galaxy, shown here at the lower left, is an unique object in the known universe. It is a polar-ring galaxy that most likly is the result of two colliding galaxies. It is located at approximately 45 million light years in the constellation of Pisces. In the background dozens of other galaxies can be seen, the largest of which is IC148.
It was due to the low altitude of NGC660 at the start of the night and the low altitude of NGC6820/NGC6823 at the end that I decided to combine them.
A total of 669 subs were collected in LRGB, making the total integration time 16 hours and 15 minutes.
L: 363 x 60s
R: 102 x 120s
G: 102 x 120s
B: 102 x 120s
Processing in APP, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.
Click here for the annotated version (annotated with ASTAP).


NGC 869 + NGC 884

NGC 884 and NGC 869 as imaged on 20 August 2023
Figure 18: NGC 884 and NGC 869 as imaged on 20 August 2023
On 20 August 2023 data was collected from double cluster NGC 869 and NGC 884. The double cluster is located in the constellation of Perseus at a distance of 7460 light years from Earth and is about 14 million years old.
A total of 2 hours and 15 minutes was spent on this galaxy:
L:150 x 30s
R:20 x 60s
G:20 x 60s
B:20 x 60s
Captured using NINA with the SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -10C. Processing in APP 2.00, post-processed in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC891 (Silver Sliver Galaxy)

NGC 891 as imaged on 4 and 5 September 2021.
Figure 19: NGC 891 as imaged on 4 and 5 September 2021.
The first two clear nights of the 2021-2022 imaging season were used to obtain data from NGC891, also known as Caldwell 23, the Silver Sliver Galaxy, and the Outer Limits Galaxy. NGC891 is part of the NGC 1023 group in the Local Supercluster in the constellation of Andromeda at a distance of 30 mly from Earth. In diameter NGC891 measures 60.000 lightyears.
A total of 12 hours and 44 minutes was spent on this galaxy:
L:200 x 60s
R:94 x 120s
G:94 x 120s
B:94 x 120s
Captured using NINA (first object captured with this software) with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP 1.078, post-processing redone in 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image. An annotated version of the image shows the names of the other galaxies.


NGC1502 and Kembel's Cascade

Kembel's Cascade and NGC1502 as imaged with the Esprit 80ED on 14 September 2023.
Figure 20: Kembel's Cascade and NGC1502 as imaged with the Esprit 80ED on 14 September 2023.
On 14 September 2023 I imaged Kemble's Cascade that leads to the open cluster NGC1502 at approximately 3500 light-years in the direction of the constellation of Camelopardalis. NGC1502, at the lower left corner of the image, was discovered by William Herschel on 3 November 1787. The Cascade was introduced by Father Lucian Kemble (19221999), a Franciscan friar and amateur astronomer who wrote a letter about it to Walter Scott Houston, an American popularizer of amateur astronomy. Kemble called it "a beautiful cascade of faint stars tumbling from the northwest down to the open cluster NGC 1502". Houston in turn wrote an article about the asterism in Sky & Telescope and coined the asterism Kemble's Cascade.

Imaging was done in LRGB, a total of six hours and forty minutes of data was collected for this galaxy:
L:380 x 30s
R:70 x 60s
G:70 x 60s
B:70 x 60s
Captured with the SkyWatcher Esprit 80ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -10C. Processing in APP, post-processing in Siril, PSP and Topaz DeNoise AI.
Click here for the full image.


NGC2360

NGC 2360 as imaged on 21 September 2022 using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
Figure 21: NGC 2360 as imaged on 21 September 2022 using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
On 21 September 2022 NGC2360, better known as Caroline's Cluster, an open cluster at 3700 light-years in the direction of the constellation of Canis Major, was imaged. It was discovered by William Herschel's sister Caroline Herschel on 26 February 1783.
Imaging was done in LRGB, a total of seven hours and one minute of data was collected for this galaxy:
L:241 x 60s
R:30 x 120s
G:30 x 120s
B:30 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in Siril, PSP and Topaz DeNoise AI.
Click here for the full image.


NGC2419

NGC2419 (C25) as imaged on 9 January 2024 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
Figure 22: NGC2419 (C25) as imaged on 9 January 2024 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
During the night of January 9 to 10, the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED was aimed at NGC2419, better known as Caldwell 25 (C25, bottom right of the photo), for an entire night of imaging. NGC2419 is nicknamed The Intergalactic Wanderer. The name is due to the incorrect assumption that, at a distance of approximately 300,000 light years, this globular cluster was not part of the Milky Way. Although it is located at a greater distance than the Magellanic Clouds, it is indeed 'caught' in the gravity of our Milky Way, but due to the enormous distance, a circle around the centre takes about 3 billion years.
Like many objects, it was discovered by William Herschel, in this case on the last day of 1788. Its absolute magnitude is -9.42 and it contains a mass 900,000 times that of the Sun. NGC2419/C25 is located in the constellation Lynx.
Imaging was done with the Esprit 150ED, ZWO EFW with ZWO LRGB filter set and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool. A total of 10 hours and 20 minutes of data was recorded:
L:290 x 60s
R:55 x 120s
G:55 x 120s
B:55 x 120s
Processing in APP, post-processing in Siril, PSP and Topaz DeNoise AI.
The galaxy at the upper left is NGC2424, a barred spiral galaxy discovered on February 6, 1885, by French astronomer douard Jean-Marie Stephan. In addition, dozens of other galaxies are visible in the background, as can be seen in the ASTAP annotated version.
Click here for the full image and here for the annotated version.


NGC2903

NGC 2903 as imaged on 5 March 2021
Figure 23: NGC 2903 as imaged on 5 March 2021
On 5 March 2021 NGC2903, a barred spiral galaxy in the direction of the constellation of Leo, was imaged. It was discovered by William Herschel and catalogued by him on 16 November 1784.
Imaging was done in LRGB, a total of five hours and two minutes of data was collected for this galaxy:
L:122 x 60s
R:30 x 120s
G:30 x 120s
B:30 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in Siril, PSP and Topaz DeNoise AI.
Click here for the full image and here for the annotated version.


NGC3180

NGC 3180 as imaged in March and April 2022.
Figure 24: NGC 3180 as imaged in March and April 2022.
At approximately 40 million light-years from Earth, in the direction of the constellation Ursa Major, this spiral galaxy can be found.
Imaging was done on 24 and 27 March and 20 April 2022 using the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED, ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool and ZWO filters. Total integration time was 14 hours and 57 minutes:
L:149 x 60s
R:100 x 120s
G:100 x 120s
B:100 x 120s
H-alpha:21 x 420s
Processing in APP, post-processing in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC3628 (Hamburger Galaxy)

The Hamburger Galaxy as imaged in March/April 2020.
Figure 25: The Hamburger Galaxy as imaged in March/April 2020.
While waiting for NGC7129 to get high enough in the sky in March 2020, I decided to fill the waiting time with taking subs from NGC3628, better known as the Hamburger Galaxy. NGC3628 is part of the Leo triplet in the constellation of Leo at a distance of 35 mly from Earth.
A total of 8 hours was spent on this galaxy:
L:60 x 120s
R:60 x 120s
G:60 x 120s
B:60 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP 1.078, post-processed redone in 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC4151

NGC4151 as imaged in February/March 2022.
Figure 26: NGC4151 as imaged in February/March 2022.
The end of February and start of March 2022 was a period of several clear nights. On 27 February and 2 and 3 March I imaged NGC 4151 a galaxy at 52 million light-years from Earth in direction of the constellation Canes Venatici. It is an intermediate spiral Seyfert galaxy which we see head-on. To the upper-left of it a smaller galaxy, NGC 4156, can be seen. The distance to that galaxy is 311 million light-years.
A total of 24 hours and 41 minutes was spent on this galaxy:
L:581 x 60s
R:150 x 120s
G:150 x 120s
B:150 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC4236

NGC4236 as imaged on 8, 9, 24 and 28 October 2021.
Figure 27: NGC4236 as imaged on 8, 9, 24 and 28 October 2021.
The 2021 imaging season started rather poor. After having imaged M29 on 7 en 8 September there have not been any further clear nights until the beginning of the second week of October. It were moonless nights on 8 and 9 October, so ideal for imaging galaxies and NGC4236 was selected for the job. The first night was perfectly clear throughout the night. Imaging was started rather late, but in the end I managed to collect 140 minutes luminance, 35 minutes red, 40 minutes green and 40 minutes blue. During the second night only one hour of luminance was acquired, after that thin stratus rolled in ruining the rest of the imaging session. The third night just over an hour of luminance was added. Finally on 28 October I managed to add several hours of Luminance to the stack.
A total of 10 hours and 54 minutes was spent on this galaxy:
L:424 x 60s
R:35 x 120s
G:40 x 120s
B:40 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP 1.078, post-processing redone 2022 in Siril, PSP and Topaz DeNoise AI.
Click here for the full image.


NGC4244

NGC4244 as imaged on 26 February 2022.
Figure 28: NGC4244 as imaged on 26 February 2022.
The end of February and start of March 2022 was a period of several clear nights. On 26 February I decided to image NGC 4244, also known as Caldwell 26. It is an edge-on loose spiral galaxy at a distance of 14.1 million light-years in the constellation Canes Venatici.
A total of 8 hours was spent on this galaxy:
L:182 x 60s
R:50 x 120s
G:50 x 120s
B:50 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC4490 (Cocoon Galaxy)

NGC 4490 as imaged on 5 and 7 March 2022.
Figure 29: NGC 4490 as imaged on 5 and 7 March 2022.
NGC4490, also known as the Cocoon Galaxy, is a barred spiral galaxy at a distance of 25 million light years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici.
A total of 11 hours and 24 minutes was spent on this galaxy:
L:204 x 60s
R:80 x 120s
G:80 x 120s
B:80 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC4656 Hockey-stick Galaxy - NGC4631 Whale Galaxy

The Hockey-stick (NGC 4656) and Whale (NGC 4631) Galaxy.
Figure 30: The Hockey-stick (NGC 4656) and Whale (NGC 4631) Galaxy.
While waiting for IC1396 to get high enough in the sky in February and March 2021, I decided to fill the waiting time with taking subs from NGC 4656, better known as the Hockey-stick Galaxy, and NGC 4631, better known as the Whale Galaxy. These two galaxies can be found between Canes Venatici and Coma Berenices.
A total of 3.5 hours was spent on this galaxy:
L:60 x 60s
R:25 x 120s
G:25 x 120s
B:25 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC5466

NGC 5466 as imaged on 11-13 February 2021.
Figure 31: NGC 5466 as imaged on 11-13 February 2021.
After having imaged NGC2264 on 12 February 2021, some time was left for a second object. Being a moon-less night, it was perfect weather for a LRGB-object, which became NGC5466, also known as the Snow-Globe Cluster or Ghost Globular Cluster due to its lack of stars towards the centre of it. Four hours of data was collected in LRGB: 60s subs for luminance, 120s subs for the rest.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 5906

NGC5906 as imaged in january 2024 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
Figure 32: NGC5906 as imaged in january 2024 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
One of the objects imaged during the first clear period of 2024 was NGC5906, better known as the Knife Edge Galaxy or Splinter Galaxy. This galaxy lies at a distance of 50 million light-years in the direction of Draco and was discovered by William Herschel on 5 May 1788. A total of 11 hours and 12 minutes was spent on this galaxy on 11 and 27 January:
L:282 x 60s
R:30 x 120s
G:30 x 120s
B:30 x 120s
B:30 x 420s
Captured with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB and H-alpha filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -10C. Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP, Siril and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


NGC 7479 (Superman Galaxy)

The Superman Galaxy as imaged en August 2022 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
Figure 33: The Superman Galaxy as imaged en August 2022 with the SkyWatcher Esprit 150ED.
At the last day of August 2022 the skies cleared unexpectedly. Having about 7 hours of imaging time available I decided to give NGC 7479, also known as Caldwell 44 or the Superman Galaxy, a try. This galaxy lies at a distance of 105 million light-years in the direction of Pegasus. Thanks to a few clear hours in the following night a total of 8 hours and 6 minutes was spent on this galaxy:
L:240 x 60s
R:50 x 120s
G:50 x 120s
B:50 x 120s
Captured with the Esprit 150ED in combination with the ZWO EFW filter wheel, ZWO LRGB filters and ZWO ASI1600MM Pro Cool camera @ -20C. Processing in APP, post-processing in PSP, Siril and Topaz.
Click here for the full image.


If you have any questions and/or remarks please let me know.


Home Geodesy Navigation Astronomy Literature
InFINNity Deck... Astrophotography... Astro-Software... Astro Reach-out... Equipment... White papers...
Deep Sky... Solar system (Main)... Solar System (Asteroids)... Solar System (Meteors)... Solar System (Comets)... Man-made objects...
Nebula Galaxies