Surveyor's Crosses

In my collection there are several surveyor's crosses, spanning more than two centuries between them.

The oldest one dates from the end of the 17th century and, given the polygon scale, was probably used for setting out or checking angles of fortification ground plans. The next one dates from the end of the 18th century and is a typical example of a pseudo Dutch circle as used by Dutch land registry surveyors of that time. From the time the Pseudo Holland Circle came into use a half version of that same instrument, the Graphometer found its way into the field.

More simple surveyor's crosses that have been used throughout the last three centuries are the Equerre and 20th century Pantometer. The latter instrument would involve into the Pantometre à Lunette.

If you have any questions and/or remarks please let me know.

19th and 20th century equerres
Figure 1: 19th and 20th century equerres
 
Early 19th century surveyor's cross by Citelli.
Figure 2: Early 19th century surveyor's cross by Citelli.

The 20th century Pantometre à Lunette.
Figure 3: The 20th century Pantometre à Lunette.
 
20th century pantometer
Figure 4: 20th century pantometer

17th century surveyor's cross
Figure 5: 17th century surveyor's cross
 
Late 18th century Pseudo Holland Circle
Figure 6: Late 18th century Pseudo Holland Circle

A late 18th century graphometer
Figure 7: A late 18th century graphometer
   

Surveyor's crosses Geodetic Sextants Theodolites Total Stations Levels Standards Tools Firms
Equerre 19th century Pantometer? 20th century Pantometer Pantometre à Lunette 17th C. Surveyor's Cross Pseudo Holland Circle Graphometer